Frankreich National

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Frankreich National

National (D3) oder vollständig Championnat de France National, gelegentlich heute noch mit Kategorie: Fußballwettbewerb in Frankreich. Championnat National (Liga, Frankreich) ⬢ Spieltag ⬢ Ergebnisse, Spiele und Termine zum Spieltag ⬢ Alle Tabellen ⬢ Live-Ticker. Besuche Resultate Service für National / Wir bieten National / Tabellen, aktuelle Resultate, Spielplan und Resultate. <

National 2020/2021 Tabellen - Gesamt-, Heim-/Auswärtstabelle

Besuche Resultate Service für National / Wir bieten National / Tabellen, aktuelle Resultate, Spielplan und Resultate. FRANKREICHNational. Spieltag. SO Cholet. FC Annecy. Sporting Club Lyon. US Quevilly. Spieltag. Le Mans FC. US Orléans. Championnat National (Liga, Frankreich) ⬢ Spieltag ⬢ Ergebnisse, Spiele und Termine zum Spieltag ⬢ Alle Tabellen ⬢ Live-Ticker.

Frankreich National Begegnungen Video

Paul Steinhardt über Keynesianismus, Nationale Souveränität \u0026 Front National (Frankreich)

Olympische Spiele in Paris. Olympische Spiele in Amsterdam. Weltmeisterschaft in Uruguay Kader. Weltmeisterschaft in Italien Kader.

Weltmeisterschaft in Frankreich Kader. Weltmeisterschaft in Brasilien. Weltmeisterschaft in der Schweiz Kader. Weltmeisterschaft in Schweden Kader.

Europameisterschaft in Frankreich Kader. Weltmeisterschaft in Chile. Europameisterschaft in Spanien. Weltmeisterschaft in England Kader.

Europameisterschaft in Italien. Weltmeisterschaft in Mexiko. Europameisterschaft in Belgien. Weltmeisterschaft in Deutschland.

Europameisterschaft in Jugoslawien. Weltmeisterschaft in Argentinien Kader. Weltmeisterschaft in Spanien Kader. Weltmeisterschaft in Mexiko Kader.

Europameisterschaft in Deutschland. Weltmeisterschaft in Italien. Europameisterschaft in Schweden Kader. Weltmeisterschaft in den USA. Europameisterschaft in England Kader.

Confed-Cup in Saudi-Arabien. Confed-Cup in Mexiko. Confed-Cup in Frankreich Kader. Europameisterschaft in Portugal Kader.

Confed-Cup in Deutschland. Weltmeisterschaft in Deutschland Kader. Confed-Cup in Südafrika. Weltmeisterschaft in Südafrika Kader. Confed-Cup in Brasilien.

Weltmeisterschaft in Brasilien Kader. Confed-Cup in Russland. Weltmeisterschaft in Russland Kader. Nations League. Pierre Pibarot a. Jules Bigot a.

Albert Batteux a. Henri Michel. Jean Rigal — Jean Nicolas. März in Paris : März in Berlin : März in Paris: März in Stuttgart : 5.

Oktober in Stuttgart : Oktober in Hannover : Oktober in Paris : Oktober in Stuttgart: September in Berlin: September in Marseille : Oktober in Gelsenkirchen : Februar in Paris: November in Hannover: 8.

Juni in Guadalajara WM-Halbfinale : August in Berlin: Februar in Montpellier : 1. Juni in Stuttgart: Februar in Saint-Denis : November in Gelsenkirchen : November in Saint-Denis: Februar in Bremen : 6.

Februar in Saint-Denis: 4. The Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since , and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since In , it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public ; human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch described the law as discriminatory towards Muslims.

France is a founding member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights.

Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member. Since the s , France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.

However, since , France has maintained an " Entente cordiale " with the United Kingdom, and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NATO , but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the Special Relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.

However, as a result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics much criticised in France by the leftists and by a part of the right , France re-joined the NATO joint military command on 4 April In the early s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.

In , France was the fourth-largest donor in absolute terms of development aid in the world, behind the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

Together they are among the largest armed forces in the world and the largest in the EU. While the Gendarmerie is an integral part of the French armed forces gendarmes are career soldiers , and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of the Armed Forces , it is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior as far as its civil police duties are concerned.

When acting as general purpose police force, the Gendarmerie encompasses the counter terrorist units of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie Escadron Parachutiste d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale , the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale , the Search Sections of the National Gendarmerie Sections de Recherche de la Gendarmerie Nationale , responsible for criminal enquiries, and the Mobile Brigades of the National Gendarmerie Brigades mobiles de la Gendarmerie Nationale , or in short Gendarmerie mobile which have the task to maintain public order.

There has been no national conscription since France has a special military corps, the French Foreign Legion , founded in , which consists of foreign nationals from over countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces and become French citizens after the end of their service period.

The only other countries having similar units are Spain the Spanish Foreign Legion, called Tercio , was founded in and Luxembourg foreigners can serve in the National Army provided they speak Luxembourgish.

France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN , and a recognised nuclear state since French nuclear deterrence, formerly known as " Force de Frappe " , relies on complete independence.

The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world. France is a major arms seller, [] [] with most of its arsenal's designs available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.

Other smaller parades are organised across the country. The Government of France has run a budget deficit each year since the early s.

As of [update] , French government debt levels reached 2. A member of the Group of Seven formerly Group of Eight leading industrialized countries, as of [update] , it is ranked as the world's tenth largest and the EU's second largest economy by purchasing power parity.

France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise [] [] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention.

The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.

As of [update] , the World Trade Organization WTO reported France was the world's sixth largest exporter and the fourth largest importer of manufactured goods.

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. Three largest financial institutions cooperatively owned by their customers are located in France.

Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

France introduced the common European currency, the Euro in French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: AXA is the world's largest insurance company.

France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products. Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognized processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports.

Agriculture is an important sector of France's economy: 3. It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits.

France, especially Paris, has some of the world's largest and most renowned museums, including the Louvre , which is the most visited art museum in the world 5.

France has 37 sites inscribed in UNESCO's World Heritage List and features cities of high cultural interest, beaches and seaside resorts, ski resorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity green tourism.

The " Remarkable Gardens " label is a list of the over gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture. This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens and parks.

France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St. France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8 , due to its heavy investment in nuclear power.

Rail connections exist to all other neighboring countries in Europe, except Andorra. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighboring Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Andorra and Monaco.

There is no annual registration fee or road tax ; however, usage of the mostly privately owned motorways is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes.

There are airports in France. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services.

There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille , [] which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea.

Since the Middle Ages , France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. Around the beginning of the 11th century, Pope Sylvester II , born Gerbert d'Aurillac, reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere , and introduced Arabic numerals and clocks to Northern and Western Europe.

They were both key figures of the Scientific Revolution , which blossomed in Europe during this period. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.

It is one of the earliest academies of sciences. Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Hand transplantation was developed on 23 September in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernard who, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.

Bernard Devauchelle. France was the fourth country to achieve nuclear capability [] and has the third largest nuclear weapons arsenal in the world.

It also owns Minatec , Europe's leading nanotechnology research center. The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of As of [update] , 69 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize [] and 12 have received the Fields Medal.

With an estimated population of France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a relatively high rate of natural population growth: by birth rates alone, it was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union in As of January [update] the fertility rate declined slightly to 1.

However, like many developed nations, France's population is aging; the average age is From to population growth averaged 0.

Large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more multicultural society. Since the French Revolution, and as codified in the French Constitution , it is illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry.

France has a significant Gypsy Gitan population, numbering between 20, and , France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about , legal immigrants annually.

According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France.

France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities in terms of metropolitan area population in [] being Paris 12,, inh.

Note: There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which indicates the population of the communes.

Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century. According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French, [] a Romance language derived from Latin.

Italian was the official language of Corsica until 9 May The Government of France does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications.

In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.

The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.

From the 17th to the midth century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.

As a result of France's extensive colonial ambitions between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, South-East Asia, as well as the Caribbean.

French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English, [] and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa. The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: it is nearly extinct in some former French colonies The Levant, South and Southeast Asia , while creoles and pidgins based on French have emerged in the French departments in the West Indies and the South Pacific French Polynesia.

On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.

Native speakers of other languages made up the remaining 5. France is a secular country in which freedom of religion is a constitutional right.

Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was.

In some cases clergy and churches were attacked, with iconoclasm stripping the churches of statues and ornaments. To this day, the government is prohibited from recognizing any specific right to a religious community except for legacy statutes like those of military chaplains and the local law in Alsace-Moselle.

It recognizes religious organisations according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organisations are expected to refrain from intervening in policy-making.

The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the "close to best overall health care" in the world.

Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World.

Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest people in developed countries, [] [] [] [] [] France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity , due mostly to the replacement in French eating habits of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food.

French education is centralized and divided into three stages: Primary, secondary, and higher education. While training and remuneration of teachers and the curriculum are the responsibility of the state centrally, the management of primary and secondary schools is overseen by local authorities.

Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialization and development of a basic grasp of language and number.

Around the age of six, children transfer to elementary school, whose primary objectives are learning about writing, arithmetic and citizenship.

Secondary education also consists of two phases. France has been a center of Western cultural development for centuries.

Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public.

The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments.

The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory.

The 43, buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences many castles and religious buildings cathedrals , basilicas , churches , but also statues, memorials and gardens.

The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance.

Jean Fouquet , the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand.

The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino , who both worked in France.

The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualised itself through classicism. In the second part of the 19th century, France's influence over painting became even more important, with the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism.

Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers.

During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse , the largest romanesque church in Europe, [] and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.

The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims. The final victory in the Hundred Years' War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture.

Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one.

Jules Hardouin Mansart , who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.

On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although it was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such buildings as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse.

Under Napoleon III , a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built.

The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire.

In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct , and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.

More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building.

The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since , new buildings had to be under 37 meters feet.

The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages , when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language.

There were several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Much medieval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France , such as The Song of Roland and the various chansons de geste.

The Roman de Renart , written in by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the medieval character Reynard 'the Fox' and is another example of early French writing.

Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais , created the literary genre of the essay.

Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people.

French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. During that same century, Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of famous children's fairy tales including Puss in Boots , Cinderella , Sleeping Beauty and Bluebeard.

The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as "the greatest French writer of all times" [] for excelling in all literary genres.

The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movement. The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance.

Descartes revitalised Western philosophy , which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras. French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment.

In The Spirit of the Laws , Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers , which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States.

Voltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion. In the 20th century, partly as a reaction to the perceived excesses of positivism, French spiritualism thrived with thinkers such as Henri Bergson and it influenced American pragmatism and Whitehead 's version of process philosophy.

France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court.

After the death of the "Roi Soleil", French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers.

Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord. French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be the Romantic music era.

Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity.

This period was also a golden age for operas. Later came precursors of modern classical music. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music.

Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.

The two composers invented new musical forms [] [] [] [] and new sounds. Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eau , Miroirs , Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit , demand considerable virtuosity.

More recently, the middle of the 20th century, Maurice Ohana , Pierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. In the s and s decade , electronic duos Daft Punk , Justice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.

Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. It is noted for having a strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the Government of France.

France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of [update] producing more films than any other European country.

Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world.

For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world, [] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States.

Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception. Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern "haute couture" originated in Paris in the s.

Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world's fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses.

The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The association of France with fashion and style French: la mode dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV [] when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe.

But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion French: couture or haute couture industry in the years — through the establishing of the great couturier houses such as Chanel , Dior , and Givenchy.

The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse. In the s, the elitist "Haute couture" came under criticism from France's youth culture.

The s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH. The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur , centrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point more than Like in most industrialized nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade.

In , the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent, [] [] but in it had to give , euros to help the print media cope with the economic crisis , in addition to existing subsidies.

In , after years of centralised monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations [] [] remained under state-control.

It was only in that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio.

Public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations. In , the government created global news channel France According to a poll in , the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.

The French Revolution continues to permeate the country's collective memory. In addition, Bastille Day , the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster.

Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both " rooster " and "inhabitant of Gaul". Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.

France is one of the world leaders of gender equality in the workplace: as of , it has France is also committed to protecting the environment: in , France was ranked 2nd in the Environmental Performance Index behind neighboring Switzerland , out of countries ranked by Yale University in that study.

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world. France's most renowned products are wines , [] including Champagne, Bordeaux , Bourgogne , and Beaujolais as well as a large variety of different cheeses , such as Camembert , Roquefort and Brie.

There are more than different varieties. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites. French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France.

By , the Michelin Guide had awarded stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country by , Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there.

In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. France produces rum via distilleries located on islands such as Reunion Island in the southern Indian Ocean.

Since , France is famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race. French martial arts include Savate and Fencing. France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin , who suggested the Games' revival, at the end of the 19th century.

Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed " Les Bleus " in reference to the team's shirt colour as well as the national French tricolour flag.

Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,, registered players, and over 18, registered clubs. The top national football club competition is Ligue 1.

It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments. Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France.

Stemming from a strong domestic league , the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams ; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times, going on to the final 3 times.

Rugby league in France is mostly played and followed in the South of France, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse.

The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France. Judo is an important sport in France. It is the second country, after Japan, to have the most gold medals.

Teddy Riner has won ten World Championships gold medals, the first and only judoka to do so, and David Douillet has won four, making them respectively the first and third top judokas in the world in terms of gold medals.

In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The national team has won two Olympic silver medals: in and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Frankreich. Country in Western Europe. For other uses of "La France", see Lafrance. For other uses of "France", see France disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Francia. National emblem. Great Seal :. Show globe. Show map of Europe. Show map of French overseas territories. Source gives area of metropolitan France as , km 2 , sq mi and lists overseas regions separately, whose areas sum to 89, km 2 34, sq mi.

Adding these give the total shown here for the entire French Republic. The CIA reports the total as , km 2 , sq mi.

Main article: Name of France. Main article: History of France. Cup Hessen Reg. Cup Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Reg.

Cup Mittelrhein Reg. Cup Niederrhein Reg. Cup Niedersachsen Reg. Cup Rheinland Reg. Cup Niedersachsen Amateure Reg. Cup Saarland Reg.

Cup Sachsen Reg. Cup Sachsen-Anhalt Reg. Cup Schleswig-Holstein Reg. Cup Südbaden Reg. Cup Südwest Reg.

Cup Thüringen Reg. Cup Westfalen Reg. League Asia Challenge J. Frauenliga 2. Die verabschiedete Verfassung machte Frankreich zu einer konstitutionellen Monarchie.

Nach der versuchten Flucht des Königs wurde dieser verhaftet und hingerichtet, die Erste Republik wurde verkündet.

Die erste Erfahrung mit republikanischer Herrschaft, die auf dem Gleichheitsprinzip beruhte, endete jedoch im Chaos und der Terrorherrschaft unter Robespierre.

Napoleon Bonaparte ergriff in dieser Situation mit einem Staatsstreich die Macht als Erster Konsul ; krönte er sich selbst zum Kaiser.

In den folgenden Koalitionskriegen brachte er fast ganz Europa unter seine Kontrolle. Sein Russlandfeldzug wurde jedoch ein Fehlschlag, die Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig besiegelte die Niederlage der französischen Truppen.

Nach der Niederlage in der Schlacht bei Waterloo wurde er endgültig verbannt. Die Restauration brachte wieder die Bourbonen auf den Thron, die darangingen, das verlorene Kolonialreich wieder aufzubauen.

In Frankreich fand gleichzeitig die Industrielle Revolution statt, wobei sich langsam eine Arbeiterklasse herausbildete.

Die Julirevolution von stürzte den despotisch regierenden Karl X. Eine erneute bürgerliche Revolution brachte Frankreich die Zweite Republik. Die Pariser Kommune , ein Aufstand, der sich gegen die Kapitulation richtete, wurde mit Gewalt und zahlreichen Todesopfern niedergeschlagen.

Die Dritte Republik währte von bis Die Industrialisierung Frankreichs führte zu einem Wirtschaftsaufschwung: , und fanden in Paris Weltausstellungen statt.

Beide Länder praktizierten Imperialismus. Nach dem Krieg war Frankreich zwar auf der Siegerseite, Nordfrankreich war jedoch weitgehend verwüstet.

Die Zwischenkriegszeit war in Frankreich vor allem von politischer Instabilität gekennzeichnet. Im Friedensvertrag von Versailles wurde Deutschland verpflichtet, hohe Reparationen an die Siegermächte zu leisten.

Französisches Militär nahm Verzögerungen der Lieferungen mehrfach zum Anlass, in unbesetztes Gebiet einzurücken. Beispielsweise besetzten am 8. In der Folge wurde vorübergehend sogar das Ruhrgebiet besetzt.

In der von den Alliierten durchgeführten Operation Overlord wurde Nordfrankreich zurückerobert. Diese beschloss unter anderem im Oktober das Frauenwahlrecht , das den Französinnen bis dahin verwehrt geblieben war.

April und auf nationaler Ebene bei den Wahlen zur Nationalversammlung am Oktober Die Verfassung der Vierten Republik war bereits am Oktober durch einen Volksentscheid beschlossen worden.

Frankreich, das sich auf Seiten der Siegermächte wiederfand, wurde zum Gründungsmitglied der Vereinten Nationen und erhielt im Sicherheitsrat ein Veto -Recht.

Frankreich erhielt zur Förderung des Wiederaufbaus unter anderem Unterstützungsleistungen aus dem Marshallplan ; [57] unter Ökonomen ist umstritten, ob diese volkswirtschaftlich nennenswerte Wirkungen hatten.

Im März wurden die Römischen Verträge unterzeichnet; zum 1. Januar wurde die Europäische Wirtschaftsgemeinschaft EWG gegründet, aus der mittlerweile die Europäische Union geworden ist und in der Frankreich ein aktives und bedeutendes Mitglied ist.

Die Nachkriegszeit war auch durch den Zerfall des Kolonialreiches geprägt. Hunderttausende Pied-noirs flohen nach Frankreich, wo ihre Integration in die französische Gesellschaft nicht immer reibungslos verlief siehe auch Dekolonisation Afrikas.

Innenpolitisch wurde die instabile Vierte Republik im Oktober durch die Fünfte Republik abgelöst, die einen starken, von der Legislative weitgehend unabhängigen Präsidenten vorsieht.

Diese Fünfte Republik wurde im Mai stark erschüttert, was langfristig kulturelle, politische und ökonomische Reformen in Frankreich nach sich zog auch in Deutschland gab es die 68er-Bewegung.

Um , also schon vor der Ölpreiskrise von , beschloss Frankreich, sich durch Nutzung der Kernenergie vom Erdöl unabhängiger zu machen siehe Kernenergie in Frankreich.

Während dieser wurden unter anderem Verstaatlichungen vorangetrieben, die Todesstrafe abgeschafft, die Stunden-Woche und andere soziale Reformen eingeführt; wurde der Vertrag von Maastricht ratifiziert.

Im Rahmen der Eurokrise werden seit etwa Frankreichs Netto-Neuverschuldung, Staatsquote , Reformfähigkeit und anderes kritisch diskutiert.

Januar wurden bei der Geiselnahme an der Porte de Vincennes in einem koscheren Supermarkt vier Menschen ermordet.

Am Abend des November verübten Terroristen an sechs verschiedenen Orten in der Stadt Anschläge , bei denen Menschen starben.

Am Folgetag wurde der Ausnahmezustand verhängt. Nach sechsmaliger Verlängerung [62] wurde der Ausnahmezustand zum 1.

November offiziell beendet. Seit der Annahme einer neuen Verfassung am 5. Oktober wird in Frankreich von der Fünften Republik gesprochen.

Diese Verfassung macht Frankreich zu einer zentralistisch organisierten Demokratie mit einem semipräsidentiellen Regierungssystem.

Gegenüber früheren Verfassungen wurde die Rolle der Exekutive und vor allem jene des Präsidenten weitgehend gestärkt. Dies war die Reaktion auf die extreme politische Instabilität in der Vierten Republik.

Sowohl Präsident als auch Premierminister spielen eine aktive Rolle im politischen Leben, wobei der Präsident nur dem Volk gegenüber verantwortlich ist.

Die Macht des Parlaments wurde in der Fünften Republik eingeschränkt. Die Verfassung enthält keinen Grundrechtekatalog , sondern verweist auf die Erklärung der Menschen- und Bürgerrechte von und die in der Verfassung der Vierten Französischen Republik von festgehaltenen sozialen Grundrechte.

Laut Verfassung ist der direkt vom Volk gewählte Staatspräsident das höchste Staatsorgan. Er steht über allen anderen Institutionen. Er wacht über die Einhaltung der Verfassung, sichert das Funktionieren der öffentlichen Gewalten, die Kontinuität des Staates, die Unabhängigkeit, die Unverletzlichkeit des Staatsgebietes und die Einhaltung von mit anderen Staaten geschlossenen Abkommen.

Er tritt als Schiedsrichter bei Streitigkeiten zwischen staatlichen Institutionen auf. Er darf Gesetze oder Teile davon an das Parlament zur Neuberatung zurückweisen, [69] hat aber kein Vetorecht.

Dekrete und Verordnungen werden vom Ministerrat , dessen Vorsitz der Präsident führt, beschlossen; gegenüber diesen hat der Präsident ein aufschiebendes Veto.

Diese Praxis schälte sich in der Regierungszeit de Gaulles heraus und ist nicht zwingend der Verfassung zu entnehmen. Der Staatspräsident ist keiner Kontrolle durch die Judikative unterworfen, dem Parlament gegenüber ist er nur bei Hochverrat verantwortlich.

Der Präsident leitet die ihm verliehene staatliche Autorität an den Premierminister und die Regierung weiter, wobei die Regierung die vom Präsidenten vorgegebenen Richtlinien umzusetzen hat.

Dies erfordert eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen Präsidenten und Premierminister, die in einer Cohabitation schwierig sein kann, also wenn Präsident und Premierminister aus zwei entgegengesetzten politischen Lagern kommen.

Der Präsident ernennt formell ohne jegliche Einschränkungen einen Premierminister und, auf Vorschlag des Premierministers, die Regierungsmitglieder.

Die Regierung hängt in der Folge vom Vertrauen des Parlamentes ab, der Präsident kann eine einmal ernannte Regierung formal nicht entlassen.

Regierungsmitglieder dürfen in Frankreich kein anderes staatliches Amt, keine sonstige Berufstätigkeit oder Parlamentsmandat ausüben.

Sie sind in ihrer Funktion dem Parlament verantwortlich. Das Parlament der V. Republik besteht aus zwei Kammern. Der Senat hat Mitglieder seit , Stand Diese werden indirekt für eine Amtszeit von sechs Jahren gewählt.

Die Initiative für Gesetze kann vom Premierminister oder einer der beiden Parlamentskammern ausgehen. Nach der Debatte in den Kammern muss der Gesetzestext von beiden Kammern gleichlautend verabschiedet werden, wobei das Weiterreichen des Textes als navette bezeichnet wird.

Nach der Annahme durch das Parlament hat der Präsident nur einmal das Recht, einen Gesetzestext zurückzuweisen. Die Nationalversammlung hat die Möglichkeit, die Regierung zu stürzen.

Das Parlament hat nicht die Befugnis, den Staatspräsidenten politisch herauszufordern. Dies soll ab nicht mehr legal sein.

Die Staatsverschuldung betrug in diesem Jahr 1. Ende stieg der Schuldenstand auf rund 89 Prozent des Bruttoinlandsprodukts.

Die französische Parteienlandschaft zeichnet sich durch einen hohen Grad der Zersplitterung und hohe Dynamik aus.

Neue Parteien entstehen und existierende Parteien ändern häufig ihre Namen. Die Namen der Parteien geben nur sehr bedingt über ihre ideologische Ausrichtung Aufschluss, denn es ist zu einer gewissen Begriffsentfremdung gekommen.

Französische Parteien haben in der Regel relativ wenige Mitglieder und eine schwache Organisationsstruktur, die sich häufig auf Paris als den Ort, wo die meisten Entscheidungen getroffen werden, konzentriert.

Die politische Linke wird von der sozialistischen Parti socialiste PS beherrscht. Die historisch bedeutsame französische kommunistische Partei , in den ersten Jahren des Jahrhunderts fast bis in die Bedeutungslosigkeit gerutscht, bildete ab mit der Parti de Gauche das Wahlbündnis Front de gauche , in dem sie aber nicht an die Erfolge früherer Jahrzehnte anknüpfen konnte.

Deutlich weiter rechts von der politischen Mitte angesiedelt ist der Front National. Seit er von Marine Le Pen graduell neu ausgerichtet wurde, hat er sich zu einem starken dritten Lager entwickelt, was in der Teilnahme Le Pens an der Stichwahl zum Amt des Präsidenten gipfelte.

Zwischen den beiden Ländern entstanden enge Beziehungen. Beide Länder waren Gründungsmitglieder der Europäischen Union. Zentrales Ziel der französischen Europapolitik ist, die Führungsrolle Frankreichs in Europa zu festigen.

Aufgeweicht wird diese Position jedoch teilweise durch neue pragmatische Ansätze. Besonders in der Klima- und Energie-, der Wirtschafts- und Finanz- sowie der Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik ist Frankreich vermehrt Vorreiter europäischer Positionen.

Der grundsätzliche Fokus auf nationalen Interessen bleibt allerdings erhalten. In der Eurokrise setzten sich Frankreich und Deutschland weitgehend für gemeinsame Positionen ein.

Frankreich hat bisher Stand Oktober nicht verlautbaren lassen, auf das Potenzial seiner Atomwaffen Force de frappe zu verzichten.

Über die Vereinten Nationen koordiniert es seine internationale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit und sein humanitäres Engagement. Das französische Parlament bestätigte am März diesen Schritt, indem es Sarkozy das Vertrauen aussprach.

Unter de Gaulles Führung entwickelte sich Frankreich zu einer Atommacht und verfügte ab mit der Force de frappe über Atomstreitkräfte , die zunächst 50 mit Kernwaffen Atombomben ausgestattete Flugzeuge in Dienst stellte.

In den er Jahren erweiterte Frankreich seine Atommacht auch auf See. Vier Atom-U-Boote tragen je 16 atomar bestückte Mittelstreckenraketen.

Hinzu kommt ein Engagement auch nach Ende der Kolonialherrschaft in Afrika , wo Frankreich bis heute in einigen Ländern die bestimmende Ordnungsmacht geblieben ist.

Frankreich hat einen der höchsten Rüstungsetats der Welt und gehört zu den führenden Militärmächten sowie zum Kreis der offiziellen Atomwaffenstaaten.

Dollar für seine Streitkräfte aus und lag damit weltweit auf Platz 6. Weiterhin ist die Gendarmerie nationale , eine zentrale Polizeibehörde, dem Verteidigungsministerium unterstellt.

Datenstand, soweit nicht ausdrücklich anders angegeben: 1. Januar [16]. Erst seit der Verwaltungsreform der Jahre und wurden Kompetenzen von der Zentralregierung auf die Gebietskörperschaften verlagert.

Auf oberster Ebene ist Frankreich seit dem 1. Regionen sind zuständig für die Wirtschaft, die Infrastruktur der Berufs- und Gymnasialausbildung und finanzieren sich über Steuern, die sie erheben dürfen, und über Transferzahlungen der Zentralregierung.

Die hohe Zahl dieser relativ kleinen Verwaltungseinheiten ist immer wieder Gegenstand von Diskussionen. Die Arrondissements , davon 13 in Übersee, stellen keine eigene Rechtspersönlichkeit dar.

Die kleinste und gleichzeitig älteste organisatorische Einheit des französischen Staates sind die Gemeinden communes.

Sie folgten den Pfarreien und Städten nach. In den letzten Jahren hat die enorm hohe Zahl der Kommunen leicht abgenommen. Waren es noch Jede Gemeinde wählt einen Gemeinderat Conseil municipal , der dann aus seiner Mitte einen Bürgermeister wählt.

Seit haben die Gemeinden deutlich mehr Rechte und werden vom Staat weniger bevormundet. Auf Gemeindeebene werden Grundschulbildung, Stadtplanung, Abfallbeseitigung, Abwasserreinigung und Kulturaktivitäten organisiert; auch sie finanzieren sich über eigene Steuern und Transferzahlungen.

Die restlichen Überseegebiete sind nicht EU-Mitglieder. Nach einer wechselvollen Geschichte des Rechts in Frankreich übernimmt heute, in der Fünften Republik, der Verfassungsrat Conseil constitutionnel die Kontrollfunktion innerhalb des politischen Systems.

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